Hypertension (Blood Pressure) Symptoms, Causes
What is Hypertension?
The blood pressure that builds up against your arterial walls is called hypertension. Blood vessels may be damaged due to high blood pressure after a certain period of time. This can lead to heart disease, kidney damage, arthritis and other disorders. High blood pressure can sometimes quietly kill lives.
Because there is no sign of this. So it can have serious consequences if left untreated or untreated for many years. There are some factors that can control this. They are like exercise, diet. If the food we eat contains high levels of potassium, magnesium, fiber and low amounts of sodium then diet can help control blood pressure.
Blood pressure fluctuates throughout the day. When the blood pressure suddenly goes too low it can lead to fainting. In some cases, low blood pressure can end up being life threatening.
Hypertension (Blood pressure) refers to the amount of force the blood exerts on the walls of the blood arteries, and the amount of force is determined by the cardiac output.
The blood flowing inside vessels exerts a force against the walls – this is hypertension (blood pressure).
Blood pressure biology and physics, as well as specifics on how it is measured and what typical measurements look like, are all well-documented, and can be found online.
According to medical recommendations, HYPERTENSION is defined as a blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg. Systolic pressure (a measure of how fast the heart is pumping blood) must be greater than 140 mmhg (millimetres of mercury), and diastolic pressure must be greater than 90 mmhg (millimetres of mercury).
This threshold has been set to define hypertension (blood pressure) for clinical convenience as patients experience benefits once they bring their blood pressure below this level.
Medical professionals, on the other hand, believe that high blood pressure is always linked to cardiovascular health. They think that, up to a point, the lower the blood pressure, the better (down to levels of 115-110 mm Hg systolic, and 75-70 mm Hg diastolic).
This view has driven the American Heart Association (AHA), for instance, to characterize the accompanying scopes of hypertension (blood pressure) (in mmHg:
Ordinary blood pressure is under 120 systolic and under 80 diastolic.
Pre-hypertension is 120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic
Stage 1 high blood pressure is 140-159 systolic or 90-99 diastolic
Stage 2 high blood pressure is defined as a reading of 160 or higher systolic or 100 or a reading of higher diastolic
Hypertensive crisis (a medical emergency) is when hypertension( blood pressure) is above 180 systolic or above 110 diastolic.
Causes of hypertension:
Even in those with normal blood pressure, acute stress, vigorous exercise, and other variables can temporarily raise blood pressure, therefore a diagnosis of hypertension necessitates many blood pressure readings indicating high blood pressure over time.
Having elevated blood pressure for a short period of time is a natural physiological response to numerous conditions. However, a systolic reading of 180 mm Hg or higher OR a diastolic reading of 110 mm Hg or higher could be an indication of a hypertensive crisis that demands immediate medical intervention. After a couple of minutes, anyone who receives this result when checking their own blood pressure is advised to wait and retest. If the reading remains at that level or increases, seek emergency medical treatment (call an ambulance or have someone drive you to the hospital immediately.
As arteries stiffen and narrow due to plaque buildup, blood pressure rises steadily with age. Vascular and heart disease also play a role in rising blood pressure in older adults, and a high systolic reading is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults over the age of 50.
High blood pressure is becoming more and more of a global health issue, in part due to an ageing population. Other significant contributions are aspects of one’s way of life, such as physical inactivity. A high-sodium diet that includes processed and fatty foods, alcohol, and tobacco usage is linked to heart disease.
Risk Factors For Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Certain diseases and medications (as described below) can cause high blood pressure, and there are a number of general risk factors for hypertension, including:[abdominal obesity]
Having a sedentary lifestyle increases your risk of high blood pressure and heart disease.
Age – as we get older, our risk of high blood pressure increases. People over the age of 60 are more likely to suffer from hypertension than those under the age of 60.
Adults of African-American descent face a greater risk than those who are white or Hispanic.
Obesity and being overweight increase your chances of developing high blood pressure.
Sex – the risk profiles of men and women are different. While everyone’s lifetime risk is the same, men are more likely than women to develop hypertension when they are younger and women are more likely to develop hypertension when they are older.
Lifestyle factors such as higher salt intake, excessive alcohol consumption, low dietary potassium intake, and physical inactivity all increase the risk of hypertension.
Other risk factors include a history of the disease in the family and long-term, poorly managed stress.
Specific causes of hypertension
Primary hypertension refers to high blood pressure that is not caused by another condition or disease (or essential hypertension). Secondary hypertension, which has a known cause, such as chronic kidney disease, is more common.
Primary hypertension is unlikely to be caused by a single factor, but rather by a combination of them, including the volume of blood plasma and the activity of the renin-angiotensin system, the hormone that controls blood volume and pressure. Primary hypertension is also influenced by environmental factors, such as the lifestyle-related issues discussed above.
Secondary hypertension(blood pressure) has specific causes –
that is, it is secondary to another problem. Primary aldosteronism, a hormone disorder that causes an imbalance between potassium and sodium levels, is now thought to be one of the most common causes of treatment-resistant hypertension.
Primary aldosteronism may account for some 5-15% of cases of hypertension. It is critical for specialists to determine whether the condition is caused by hyperplasia of the adrenal gland(s) or an adrenal gland tumour because treatments differ.
Excessive alcohol consumption and the use of oral contraceptives, which can cause a slight rise in blood pressure, are two common reversible causes. Hormone therapy for menopause is also to blame. In addition to primary hypertension, secondary hypertension can be caused by:
Diabetes (both due to kidney problems and nerve damage), Kidney disease, Pheochromocytoma (a cancer), Cushing syndrome (which can be caused by use of corticosteroid drugs), a congenital disorder of the adrenal glands, characterised by the overproduction of cortisol; hyperthyroidism; (overactive thyroid gland), Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition (which affects calcium and phosphorous levels), Pregnancy, Obesity and sleep apnea are two related conditions.
Symptoms of hypertension
The condition of having high blood pressure is usually asymptomatic, which means that patients do not have any symptoms of it. So hypertension is known as “the silent killer” because of the damage it can do to the cardiovascular system invisibly.
Hypertension can also cause issues in the organs that are affected by high blood pressure. Long-term hypertension can lead to complications such as arteriosclerosis, a condition in which plaques form and narrow blood vessels.
The following are some of the complications associated with hypertension-related arteriosclerosis:
Heart disease in which the pumping ability of the heart is compromised due to its size or weakness (heart failure)
An aneurysm is an abnormal protrusion in the artery’s wall (which can burst, causing severe bleeding and, in some cases, death ). Blood vessel narrowing – in the kidneys, this can result in kidney failure; in the heart, brain, and legs, this can result in a heart attack, stroke, or the need for amputation,
When blood vessels in the eyes burst or bleed, it can cause vision issues or even blindness (hypertensive retinopathies – classified by worsening grades one through four).
Let’s take a look at some of the foods that can help control high blood pressure.
Leaves of lettuce and vegetables:
Potassium helps the kidneys excrete excess sodium through the urine. Thus lowering blood pressure. Let’s look at some of the greens now Roman lettuce, arugula, spinach, spinach, collard lettuce, spinach, beetroot, etc.
Canned vegetables are high in sodium. But in frozen vegetables the nutrients are the same as in fresh vegetables. And these are easy to store. You can grind the above mentioned spinach with milk with banana and nuts and drink a healthy juice.
Berries, especially blueberries, are a natural source of flavonoids. Some studies suggest that this component may help prevent hypertension and reduce high blood pressure. You can include blueberries, raspberries and strawberries in your diet. Always keep this fruit in your handbag so you can taste it as a snack when needed.
Beetroot is high in nitric acid. It helps to open your blood vessels and lowers blood pressure. Researchers also found that participants who drank beetroot juice had lower blood pressure for 24 hours due to nitrite.
Beetroot juice can be made or eaten cooked. Beetroot can be added to roasts or stews to enhance flavor. Beetroot chips can be made and eaten.
Skim milk and yogurt
Skim milk is a source of calcium and low fat. Both of these are important components that help lower blood pressure. If you do not like milk you can add yogurt.
Women who take yogurt more than 5 times a week have a 20% lower risk of developing high blood pressure, according to the American Heart Association.
Adding granola, almonds and fruits to the yoghurt has many benefits for the heart. When buying yogurt, be aware of its sugar content. Yogurt with low levels of sugar is good for the body.
Oats are an excellent food. Oats, which are high in fiber, low in fat and low in sodium, are the best way to lower blood pressure. Taking oats for breakfast at the start of a day can keep you refreshed throughout the day. Oatmeal soaked overnight is a great choice for breakfast. Add half a cup of milk with half a cup of oats and place in a jar. Soak it overnight and add some berries, granola and a pinch of lemon the next morning.
Choosing foods high in potassium is better than taking pills. In the morning you can chop a banana with whole grains or oats. Bananas are a good source of potassium. A boiled egg and a banana are an excellent breakfast. It can also be tasted as a snack.
Fish in salmon, mackerel, omega 3
Fish is a good source of lean protein. Fatty fish such as mackerel and salmon are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These lower blood pressure, Reduce inflammation and reduce triglyceride levels. Fish contains vitamin D. Vitamin D is rarely found in foods. Like a hormone, this vitamin has the property of lowering blood pressure.
The fish is very easy to cook. Add some herbs to the salmon, squeeze the lemon juice, add the olive oil and bake for 12-15 minutes in the oven which is already preheated to 450 degrees.
Unsalted seeds are a source of potassium, magnesium and other minerals that can help lower high blood pressure. Mix 2 cups of sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds and squash seeds and enjoy as a snack. It can include all kinds of seeds. Add watermelon, almonds if you need extra flavor.
Garlic and herbs
Garlic increases the level of nitric acid in the body and reduces hypertension, according to a reliable report. Nitric acid dilates arteries and lowers blood pressure. Adding scented spices and herbs to your diet daily will reduce the amount of salt. Some herbs like basil, lemon, thyme, rosemary.
A 2015 study found that consuming dark chocolate reduced the risk of heart disease, suggesting that consuming 100 grams of dark chocolate a day reduced the risk of heart disease. Dark chocolate contains 60% solid cocoa and is lower in sugar than regular chocolate. Adding dark chocolate to yoghurt and adding fruits like blueberries, strawberries or raspberries to it will give the feeling of eating a healthy dessert.
Pistachios are a healthy food by reducing peripheral vascular resistance, narrowing of blood vessels, and increased heart rate. Studies show that eating pistachios once a day lowers blood pressure.
Pistachios can be eaten with salads or as a snack alone.
An important example of healthy fats is olive oil. Olive oil contains polyphenols. It helps reduce high blood pressure with anti-inflammatory components.
It is recommended to take olive oil two or three times daily in the DASH diet. Olive oil is a great alternative to canola oil, butter, etc.
Pomegranate is a healthy fruit that can be taken as a fruit and juice. One study found that drinking pomegranate juice once a day for four weeks reduced blood pressure in a short period of time.
Pomegranate juice is a healthy and tasty breakfast. When buying juice in stores you need to be careful about its sugar level. Its increased sugar may detract from its health benefits.